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Promising Effect of Irisin in Reduction of Obesity And Insulin Resistance: A Review

Aman Mehari Abraha, Asrat Endrias Kahsay, Ezra Belay Ketema


Skeletal muscle has recently considered as an active endocrine organ that plays vital roles in metabolic regulation as well as inflammation by secreting “myokines”, which interact with liver, adipose tissue, brain, and other organs to function in many physical processes. Hundreds of skeletal muscle-derived proteins, such as interleukin 6, 13, 15, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor 21, and irisin have been identified and some of the can improve or worsen glucose, fatty acid metabolism, insulin resistance, and regulate chronic inflammation. Irisin is a novel myokine, proteolytically processed from the product of the Fibronectin type-III domain containing protein 5 gene prior to be released into the circulation. It is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α, and it has been proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism, inducing the browning of sc adipocytes and thermogenesis by increasing uncoupling protein 1 levels. Exercise induces irisin expression and activates considerate changes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, stimulating browning white adipose tissue and increase uncoupling protein 1 expression. This leads a significant increase in total body energy expenditure and resistance to obesity-linked insulin-resistance. As a result, irisin action recaps some of the most important payback of exercise and muscle activity. Therefore, irisin administration could be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy to improve insulin signaling, mimicking exercise effects. However, most of the promising results obtained from studies in rodents and mice show some controversial result in human subjects which questions the effect of irisin in animal model. Another issue, that should be noted is its secretion may also be affected by the development of muscle insulin resistance or our body may develop resistances to irisn, as shown decreasing irisin concentration in insulin resistant individuals and increasing in obese people. Those are controversial issues which need careful attention in future studies in order to use the promising therapeutic nature of irisin.

Keywords: Irisin, insulin resistance, obesity, skeletal muscle, WAT, thermogenesis

Cite this Article

Aman Mehari Abraha, Asrat Endrias Kahsay, Ezra Belay Ketema.  Promising Effect of Irisin in Reduction of Obesity and Insulin Resistance: A Review.  Research & Reviews: Journal of Computational Biology. 2016; 5(2):  13–26p.


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